Abnormal Uterine Bleeding
Oxytocin is a hormone that acts on organs in the body (including the breast and uterus) in the hypothalamus – it is released into the blood when these cells are excited. in the body are contraction of the womb (uterus) during childbirth and lactation. There is also a positive feedback involved in the milk-ejection reflex.and
A more recent article on abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women is available. See related patient information handout on abnormal uterine bleeding , written by the authors of this article. The specific diagnostic approach depends on whether the patient is premenopausal, perimenopausal or postmenopausal. In premenopausal women with normal findings on physical examination, the most likely diagnosis is dysfunctional uterine bleeding DUB secondary to anovulation, and the diagnostic investigation is targeted at identifying the etiology of anovulation. In perimenopausal patients, endometrial biopsy and other methods of detecting endometrial hyperplasia or carcinoma must be considered early in the investigation. Uterine pathology, particularly endometrial carcinoma, is common in postmenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding.
Oxytocin is produced in the hypothalamus and is secreted into the bloodstream by the posterior pituitary gland. Secretion depends on electrical activity of neurons in the hypothalamus — it is released into the blood when these cells are excited. The two main actions of oxytocin in the body are contraction of the womb uterus during childbirth and lactation. Oxytocin stimulates the uterine muscles to contract and also increases production of prostaglandins , which increase the contractions further. Manufactured oxytocin is sometimes given to induce labour if it has not started naturally or it can be used to strengthen contractions to aid childbirth. In addition, manufactured oxytocin is often given to speed up delivery of the placenta and reduce the risk of heavy bleeding by contracting the uterus. During breastfeeding, oxytocin promotes the movement of milk into the breast, allowing it to be excreted by the nipple.
The correct balance of hormones is essential for a successful pregnancy. Hormones travel around the body, usually via the blood, and attach to proteins on the cells called receptors — much like a key fits a lock or a hand fits a glove. In response to this, the target tissue or organ changes its function so that pregnancy is maintained. Initially, the ovaries , and then later, the placenta , are the main producers of pregnancy-related hormones that are essential in creating and maintaining the correct conditions required for a successful pregnancy. Following conception , a new embryo must signal its presence to the mother, allowing her body to identify the start of pregnancy.
The pituitary gland and the hypothalamus are situated within the brain and control hormone production. Sheehan's syndrome is a condition that affects women who lose a life-threatening amount of blood in childbirth or who have severe low blood pressure during or after childbirth, which can deprive the body of oxygen. In Sheehan's syndrome, the lack of oxygen can damage your pituitary gland. Sheehan's syndrome causes the pituitary gland to not produce enough pituitary hormones hypopituitarism. Also called postpartum hypopituitarism, Sheehan's syndrome is rare in industrialized nations, largely due to improved obstetrical care. But it's a major threat to women in developing countries.
NCBI Bookshelf. Female sex hormones play an important role in fibroid growth. This makes it possible to shrink fibroids with hormone therapy. The hormones can be used to relieve symptoms or to help prepare for surgery. Some hormone therapies can be used to temporarily relieve heavy menstrual bleeding and period pain. These treatments can also shrink fibroids, but they can't make them disappear completely. Hormones are usually only used for a limited amount of time because of the risk of side effects.
Medical management of heavy menstrual bleeding
Menstruation is considered normal when uterine bleeding occurs every 21 to 35 days and is not excessive. The normal duration of menstrual bleeding is between two and seven days.
ABNORMAL VAGNIAL BLEEDING Symptoms, Causes & Treatments